Glutamine is classified as an amino acid. Amino acids play many roles within the body. Their main purpose is to serve as building blocks for proteins. Although it is produced naturally in the body, sometimes the body requires more than is produced. This is when supplementation is necessary.
Acceptable routes : IV + IM
Uses : often used for side effects of chemotherapy (diarrhea, pain/swelling inside the mouth, neuropathy, and muscle/joint pain); digestive conditions such as Crohn’s, ulcerative colitis, and ulcers; enhancing exercise performance (anabolic effect); sickle cell anemia; and alcohol withdrawal.May help muscle recover faster after intense workouts. Can help reduce recovery time for wounds and burns. May improve symptoms of IBS, leaky gut and ulcers. Glutamine is a precursor to glutamate which could help with brain issues such as Reye’s Syndrome, epilepsy, anxiety, depression and addiction.
Contraindications/Precautions: Can decrease the effectiveness of lactulose. Caution in renal or liver dx.
Medication Guide: https://www.olympiapharmacy.com/product/glutamine
Pregnancy: There is not enough information to know if glutamine is safe to use in larger amounts as a medicine when pregnant or breastfeeding. Therefore it is best to stay on the safe side and avoid use.
Distribution: Adults (healthy): IV: Vd: ~200 mL/kg
Metabolism: Hepatic metabolism to glutamate and ammonia
Half-life elimination: Adults (healthy): IV: ~1 hour
Time to peak, serum: Adults (healthy): ~30 minutes
Mechanism of Action: Glutamine is considered a "conditionally essential" amino acid during metabolic stress and injury. Glutamine is a precursor for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). In sickle cell disease, NAD and its reduced form, NADH, have a role in regulating and preventing red blood cell oxidative damage; in sickle red blood cells, the ratio of NADH to total NAD is lower, which results in a decreased NAD redox potential (Niihara 1998). Glutamine may improve NAD redox potential in sickle red blood cells through increased availability of reduced glutathione.
Basic Information: Glutamine is classified as an amino acid. Amino acids play many roles within the body. Their main purpose is to serve as building blocks for proteins. Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body, being produced in the muscles and distributed via the bloodstream. Glutamine provides the necessary nitrogen and carbon to fuel a variety of cells and is necessary to produce additional amino acids and glucose. Because of this, glutamine plays a key role in fueling the body’s natural healing processes and healthy organ function. The body can usually synthesize sufficient amounts of glutamine, but in some instances of stress, such as after a traumatic injury or illness, the body’s demand for glutamine increases and can outpace the amount the muscles can produce on their own. Additional glutamine can be obtained from the diet. Glutamine is found in protein-rich sources such as beef, chicken, fish, dairy products, eggs, vegetables like beans, beets, cabbage, spinach, carrots, parsley, vegetable juices and also in wheat, papaya, Brussels sprouts, celery, kale and fermented foods like miso. Maintaining adequate levels of L-glutamine is critical to maintaining a healthy immune system and supporting the body’s ability to heal itself.
General Information: Glutamine and glutamate — Glutamine is an abundant, nonessential amino acid, an important precursor of glutathione production, and plays a role in acid-base regulation. Glutamine, which is converted to glutamate during normal metabolism, is purported to have anabolic and immune effects of benefit to athletes. Normal dietary intake is approximately 3 to 6 g per day. During intense athletic training, glutamine stores are depleted, and this has been associated with the depressed immune function seen in some endurance athletes. Nevertheless, there is little evidence that glutamine supplementation stimulates protein synthesis, reduces protein breakdown or muscle soreness, or improves immune function. Observational evidence suggests that glutamine supplementation may reduce the incidence of upper respiratory tract infections among endurance athletes training intensively. The authors of one literature review suggest that chronic oral administration of free L-glutamate or the dipeptide can attenuate the inflammation induced by intense exercise, but find that the effects on muscle recovery remain unclear. Glutamine supplementation has few side effects and is well tolerated by most.